Basic Motor Theory
It has been said that if the Ancient Romans, with their advanced civilization and knowledge of the sciences, had been able to develop a steam motor, the course of history would have been much different. The development of the electric motor in modern times has indicated the truth in this theory. The development of the electric motor has given us the most efficient and effective means to do work known to man. Because of the electric motor we have been able to greatly reduce the painstaking toil of man's survival and have been able to build a civilization which is now reaching to the stars. The electric motor is a simple device in principle. It converts electric energy into mechanical energy. Over the years, electric motors have changed substantially in design, however the basic principles have remained the same. In this section of the Action Guide we will discuss these basic motor principles. We will discuss the phenomena of magnetism, AC current and basic motor operation.
Now, before we discuss basic motor operation a short review of magnetism might be helpful to many of us. We all know that a permanent magnet will attract and hold metal objects when the object is near or in contact with the magnet. The permanent magnet is able to do this because of its inherent magnetic force which is referred to as a "magnetic field". In Figure 1 , the magnetic field of two permanent magnets are represented by "lines of flux". These lines of flux help us to visualize the magnetic field of any magnet even though they only represent an invisible phenomena. The number of lines of flux vary from one magnetic field to another. The stronger the magnetic field, the greater the number of lines of flux which are drawn to represent the magnetic field. The lines of flux are drawn with a direction indicated since we should visualize these lines and the magnetic field they represent as having a distinct movement from a N-pole to a S-pole as shown in Figure 1. Another but similar type of magnetic field is produced around an electrical conductor when an electric current is passed through the conductor as shown in Figure 2-a. These lines of flux define the magnetic field and are in the form of concentric circles around the wire. Some of you may remember the old "Left Hand Rule" as shown in Figure 2-b. The rule states that if you point the thumb of your left hand in the direction of the current, your fingers will point in the direction of the magnetic field.
When the wire is shaped into a coil as shown in Figure 3, all the individual flux lines produced by each section of wire join together to form one large magnetic field around the total coil. As with the permanent magnet, these flux lines leave the north of the coil and re-enter the coil at its south pole. The magnetic field of a wire coil is much greater and more localized than the magnetic field around the plain conductor before being formed into a coil. This magnetic field around the coil can be strengthened even more by placing a core of iron or similar metal in the center of the core. The metal core presents less resistance to the lines of flux than the air, thereby causing the field strength to increase. (This is exactly how a stator coil is made; a coil of wire with a steel core.) The advantage of a magnetic field which is produced by a current carrying coil of wire is that when the current is reversed in direction the poles of the magnetic field will switch positions since the lines of flux have changed direction. This phenomenon is illustrated in Figure 4. Without this magnetic phenomenon existing, the AC motor as we know it today would not exist.
The basic principle of all motors can easily be shown using two electromagnets and a permanent magnet. Current is passed through coil no. 1 in such a direction that a north pole is established and through coil no. 2 in such a direction that a south pole is established. A permanent magnet with a north and south pole is the moving part of this simple motor. In Figure 5-a the north pole of the permanent magnet is opposite the north pole of the electromagnet. Similarly, the south poles are opposite each other. Like magnetic poles repel each other, causing the movable permanent magnet to begin to turn. After it turns part way around, the force of attraction between the unlike poles becomes strong enough to keep the permanent magnet rotating. The rotating magnet continues to turn until the unlike poles are lined up. At this point the rotor would normally stop because of the attraction between the unlike poles. (Figure 5-b)
If, however, the direction of currents in the electromagnetic coils was suddenly reversed, thereby reversing the polarity of the two coils, then the poles would again be opposites and repel each other. (Figure 5-c). The movable permanent magnet would then continue to rotate. If the current direction in the electromagnetic coils was changed every time the magnet turned 180 degrees or halfway around,then the magnet would continue to rotate. This simple device is a motor in its simplest form. An actual motor is more complex than the simple device shown above, but the principle is the same.
How is the current reversed in the coil so as to change the coils polarity, you ask. Well, as you probably know, the difference between DC and AC is that with DC the current flows in only one direction while with AC the direction of current flow changes periodically. In the case of common AC that is used throughout most of the United States, the current flow changes direction 120 times every second. This current is referred to as "60 cycle AC" or "60 Hertz AC" in honor of Mr. Hertz who first conceived the AC current concept. Another characteristic of current flow is that it can vary in quantity. We can have a 5 amp, 10 amp or 100 amp flow for instance. With pure DC, this means that the current flow is actually 5,10, or 100 amps on a continuous basis. We can visualize this on a simple time-current graph by a straight line as shown in Figure 6.
But with AC it is different. As you can well imagine, it would be rather difficult for the current to be flowing at say 100 amps in a positive direction one moment and then at the next moment be flowing at an equal intensity in the negative direction. Instead, as the current is getting ready to change directions, it first tapers off until it reaches zero flow and then gradually builds up in the other direction. See Figure 7. Note that the maximum current flow (the peaks of the line) in each direction is more than the specified value (100 amps in this case). Therefore, the specified value is given as an average. It is actually called a "root mean square" value, but don't worry about remembering this because it is of no importance to us at this time. What is important in our study of motors, is to realize that the strength of the magnetic field produced by an AC electro-magnetic coil increases and decreases with the increase and decrease of this alternating current flow.
An AC motor has two basic electrical parts: a "stator" and a "rotor" as shown in Figure 8. The stator is in the stationary electrical component. It consists of a group of individual electro-magnets arranged in such a way that they form a hollow cylinder, with one pole of each magnet facing toward the center of the group. The term, "stator" is derived from the word stationary. The stator then is the stationary part of the motor. The rotor is the rotating electrical component. It also consists of a group of electro-magnets arranged around a cylinder, with the poles facing toward the stator poles. The rotor, obviously, is located inside the stator and is mounted on the motor's shaft. The term "rotor" is derived from the word rotating. The rotor then is the rotating part of the motor. The objective of these motor components is to make the rotor rotate which in turn will rotate the motor shaft. This rotation will occur because of the previously discussed magnetic phenomenon that unlike magnetic poles attract each other and like poles repel. If we progressively change the polarity of the stator poles in such a way that their combined magnetic field rotates, then the rotor will follow and rotate with the magnetic field of the stator.
This "rotating magnetic fields of the stator can be better understood by examining Figure 9. As shown, the stator has six magnetic poles and the rotor has two poles. At time 1, stator poles A-1 and C-2 are north poles and the opposite poles, A-2 and C-1, are south poles. The S-pole of the rotor is attracted by the two N-poles of the stator and the N-pole of the rotor is attracted by the two south poles of the stator. At time 2, the polarity of the stator poles is changed so that now C-2 and B-1 and N-poles and C-1 and B-2 are S-poles. The rotor then is forced to rotate 60 degrees to line up with the stator poles as shown. At time 3, B-1 and A-2 are N. At time 4, A-2 and C-1 are N. As each change is made, the poles of the rotor are attracted by the opposite poles on the stator. Thus, as the magnetic field of the stator rotates, the rotor is forced to rotate with it.
One way to produce a rotating magnetic field in the stator of an AC motor is to use a three-phase power supply for the stator coils. What, you may ask, is three-phase power? The answer to that question can be better understood if we first examine single-phase power. Figure 7 is the visualization of single-phase power. The associated AC generator is producing just one flow of electrical current whose direction and intensity varies as indicated by the single solid line on the graph. From time 0 to time 3, current is flowing in the conductor in the positive direction. From time 3 to time 6, current is flowing in the negative. At any one time, the current is only flowing in one direction. But some generators produce three separate current flows (phases) all superimposed on the same circuit. This is referred to as three-phase power. At any one instant, however, the direction and intensity of each separate current flow are not the same as the other phases. This is illustrated in Figure 10. The three separate phases (current flows) are labeled A, B and C. At time 1, phase A is at zero amps, phase B is near its maximum amperage and flowing in the positive direction, and phase C is near to its maximum amperage but flowing in the negative direction. At time 2, the amperage of phase A is increasing and flow is positive, the amperage of phase B is decreasing and its flow is still negative, and phase C has dropped to zero amps. A complete cycle (from zero to maximum in one direction, to zero and to maximum in the other direction, and back to zero) takes one complete revolution of the generator. Therefore, a complete cycle, is said to have 360 electrical degrees. In examining Figure 10, we see that each phase is displaced 120 degrees from the other two phases. Therefore, we say they are 120 degrees out of phase.
To produce a rotating magnetic field in the stator of a three-phase AC motor, all that needs to be done is wind the stator coils properly and connect the power supply leads correctly. The connection for a 6 pole stator is shown in Figure 11. Each phase of the three-phase power supply is connected to opposite poles and the associated coils are wound in the same direction. As you will recall from Figure 4, the polarity of the poles of an electro-magnet are determined by the direction of the current flow through the coil. Therefore, if two opposite stator electro-magnets are wound in the same direction, the polarity of the facing poles must be opposite. Therefore, when pole A1 is N, pole A2 is S. When pole B1 is N, B2 is S and so forth.
Figure 12 shows how the rotating magnetic field is produced. At time1, the current flow in the phase "A" poles is positive and pole A-1 is N. The current flow in the phase "C" poles is negative, making C-2 a N-pole and C-1 is S. There is no current flow in phase "B", so these poles are not magnetized. At time 2, the phases have shifted 60 degrees, making poles C-2 and B-1 both N and C-1 and B-2 both S. Thus, as the phases shift their current flow, the resultant N and S poles move clockwise around the stator, producing a rotating magnetic field. The rotor acts like a bar magnet, being pulled along by the rotating magnetic field.
Up to this point not much has been said about the rotor. In the previous examples, it has been assumed the rotor poles were wound with coils, just as the stator poles, and supplied with DC to create fixed polarity poles. This, by the way, is exactly how a synchronous AC motor works. However, most AC motors being used today are not synchronous motors. Instead, so-called "induction" motors are the workhorses of industry. So how is an induction motor different? The big difference is the manner in which current is supplied to the rotor. This is no external power supply. As you might imagine from the motor's name, an induction technique is used instead. Induction is another characteristic of magnetism. It is a natural phenomena which occurs when a conductor (aluminum bars in the case of a rotor, see Figure 13) is moved through an existing magnetic field or when a magnetic field is moved past a conductor. In either case, the relative motion of the two causes an electric current to flow in the conductor. This is referred to as "induced" current flow. In other words, in an induction motor the current flow in the rotor is not caused by any direct connection of the conductors to a voltage source, but rather by the influence of the rotor conductors cutting across the lines of flux produced by the stator magnetic fields. The induced current which is produced in the rotor results in a magnetic field around the rotor conductors as shown in Figure 14. This magnetic field around each rotor conductor will cause each rotor conductor to act like the permanent magnet in the Figure 9 example. As the magnetic field of the stator rotates, due to the effect of the three-phase AC power supply, the induced magnetic field of the rotor will be attracted and will follow the rotation. The rotor is connected to the motor shaft, so the shaft will rotate and drive the connection load. That's how a motor works! Simple, was it not?
DC Motor Theory
The intent of this paper is to provide one with an understanding of DC Motors in order that they can be applied with confidence. This paper contains basic information and specific information that applies to Reliance Medium HP and Large HP DC Motors. Due to the nature of Baldor Systems business, emphasis has been placed on the Large DC motor product line.
Section 1: Dynamo Development
The first generators and motors were called dynamos or dynamoelertric machines. Dynamo is from the Greek word dynamis which means power. Webster defines dynamoelectric as "relating to the conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy or vice versa". The word motor is from the Latin word motus which means one that imparts motion or prime mover. The dynamo was the result of the efforts of several people, in different countries, in the mid-nineteenth century, to make electricity work for them.
Landmarks Of Electric Motor Development
The first practical dynamo, about 1867
Section 2: Electric Motor And Generator Basics
Faraday's law states that, "the EMF (electromotive force) induced between the ends of a loop or coil is proportional to the rate of change of magnetic flux enclosed by the coil; or the EMF induced between the ends of a bar conductor is proportional to the time rate at which magnetic flux is cut by the conductor."
This law emphasizes rate of change or rate or flux cutting rather than density or extent of magnetic field.
Whenever there is a change in current in a magnetizing coil, which works to change the flux in the coil, a voltage is induced which tends to prevent the change. Thus, if we attempt to diminish the current flowing in a magnetizing coil, a voltage will be developed that will tend to keep the current unchanged. Likewise, if we attempt to establish a current in a magnetizing coil, a voltage will be developed that will tend to keep the current from increasing.
Generator Basic Principles
To illustrate this with Fleming's right hand rule, the thumb and first two fingers of the right hand are extended at right angles to one another, the thumb will indicate the direction of motion of the conductor, the forefinger will indicate the direction of the magnetic field, and the middle finger will indicate the direction of voltage or current.
Applying this rule, one can see that the current will reverse if the motion of the conductor changes from down to up. This is true even though the magnetic field does not change position. Therefore, the rotating coil in Figure 2 will produce a voltage which is continually changing direction.
The coil in position AB, in figure 2, encloses the maximum amount of flux. The flux decreases as the coil moves toward position CD and becomes zero at CD, since the plane of the coil is parallel to the magnetic field. Then the flux increases in the opposite direction, reaching a negative maximum at BA and diminishing again to zero at DC. The flux reverses and increases again in the original direction to reach a maximum at AB.
Although the flux is maximum at positions AB and BA and zero at positions CD and DC, the induced EMF will be maximum at positions CD and DC and zero at positions AB and BA. This is true because the EMF depends upon the rate of change of flux or rate of cutting flux lines and not upon the quantity enclosed.
If the coil in Figure 2 were rotated at a constant speed in a uniform magnetic field, a sine wave of voltage would be obtained. This is shown in Figure 3 where both the amount of flux enclosed and the EMF induced are plotted against time.
Value of Generated Voltage
This equation can be further developed to obtain the voltage for movement of a conductor at constant velocity through a uniform magnetic field:
If the conductor moves directly across the field at right angles to it, then = 90° and sin = 1. The equation then becomes:
It should be noted that this equation is a special form of the original equation and is not applicable in all cases.
MOTOR BASIC PRINCIPLES
Producing Mechanical Force
Since the motor is the reverse of the generator, Fleming's left hand rule can be used. If the thumb and first two fingers of the left hand are extended at right angles to one another, the thumb will indicate the direction of motion, the forefinger will indicate the direction of the magnetic field, and the middle finger will indicate the direction of current. In either the motor or generator, if the directions of any two factors are known, the third can be easily determined.
Value of Mechanical Force
At the same time torque is being produced, the conductors are moving in a magnetic field and generating a voltage. This voltage is in opposition to the voltage that causes current flow through the conductor and is referred to as a countervoltage or back EMF. The value of current flowing through the armature is dependent upon the difference between the applied voltage and the countervoltage.
DC Machines, Principles Of OperationGenerator
In a generator, moving a conductor through a stationary magnetic field generates voltage. If a coil is rotated through a magnetic field as shown in Figure 4, an alternating voltage will be produced. To make this voltage available to a stationary external circuit, two slip rings and brushes must be provided. For the external circuit to produce DC voltage, it is necessary to reverse the polarity of the external leads at the same time the voltage in the coil is reversed. This is accomplished by segmenting a slip ring to form what is called a commutator. An elementary two segment commutator is illustrated in Figure 5. This single coil, two piece commutator will yield an unidirectional but pulsating voltage as shown in Figure 6. However, when a large number of commutator segments or bars is used, the resulting voltage will be more uniform as shown in Figure 7.
As stated above, the generated voltage in a single conductor is:
This equation can be developed to the following equation for DC machines:
This equation represents the average voltage. For a given machine, it can be reduced to:
As stated previously, if current is supplied to a conductor in a magnetic field, a force will be produced. The force developed in a single conductor is:
This equation can be developed to the following for DC motors:
For a given machine, this can be reduced to:
K2 is not the same as the K1 for voltage. The above torque is not the output torque of the shaft, but rather the total torque developed by the armature. Part of this total torque is needed to overcome the inertia of the armature itself.
The horsepower output of any motor can be expressed as:
DC General Construction
A typical DC generator or motor usually consists of: An armature core, an air gap, poles, and a yoke which form the magnetic circuit; an armature winding, a field winding, brushes and a commutator which form the electric circuit; and a frame, end bells, bearings, brush supports and a shaft which provide the mechanical support. See figure 8.
Armature Core or Stack
Brushes and Brush Holders
Frame, End Bells, Shaft, and Bearings
Back End, Front End
Gramme Ring Winding
Slots and Coils
The field windings provide the excitation necessary to set up the magnetic fields in the machine. There are various types of field windings that can be used in the generator or motor circuit. In addition to the following field winding types, permanent magnet fields are used on some smaller DC products. See Figure 19 for winding types.
Separately Excited Winding
Straight Shunt Winding
Stabilized Shunt Winding
Shunt Compensated Winding
The maximum voltage from an armature winding can be obtained when the brushes are in contact with those conductors, which are midway between the poles. This will result in the greatest possible number of conductors cutting the magnetic lines in one direction between a positive and negative brush. This brush position is known as the no load neutral position of the brushes. The current in a given armature coil reverses in direction as the coil sides move from one pole to another of opposite polarity, whereas the function of the commutator is to keep the current unidirectional. This reversal of current is known as commutation. The commutator acts as a switch to keep the current flowing in one direction. However, the fast rate of change in direction of the current in any given coil induces an appreciable voltage in that coil which tends to keep the current flowing in the original direction. Therefore, the current reversal is delayed causing an accelerated rate of change near the end of the commutation period. This results in an arc if the reversal is not completed before the brush breaks contact with the coil involved. Any arcing is detrimental to the operation of the machine and must be counteracted.
In generators the demagnetization component of armature reaction would be detrimental because there will be a decrease in generated voltage with increase in load. However, in a motor, the effect would be beneficial because the speed would tend to remain constant.
No Load Saturation Curve
Generator Build Up
Voltage Output The voltage equation has been expressed as:
However, this is the generated voltage and part of it must be used to overcome the IR drops in the machine, which are caused by the resistance's of the armature, series field, interpoles, brushes, etc. If these resistance's are combined together and called armature resistance, then the voltage output at the generator terminals can be expressed as:
In a shunt excited generator, it can be seen that the output voltage decreases faster than with separate excitation. This is due to the fact that, since the output voltage is reduced because of the armature reaction effect and armature IR drop, the field voltage is also reduced which further reduces the flux. It can also be seen that beyond a certain critical value, the shunt generator shows a reversal in trend of current values with decreasing voltages. This point of maximum current output is known as the breakdown point. At the short circuit condition, the only flux available to produce current is the residual magnetism of the armature.
To build up the voltage on a series generator, the external circuit must be connected and its resistance reduced to a comparatively low value. Since the armature is in series with the field, load current must be flowing to obtain flux in the field. As the voltage and current rise the load resistance may be increased to its normal value. As the external characteristic curve shows, the voltage output starts at zero, reaches a peak, and then falls back to zero.
The combination of a shunt field and a series field gives the best external characteristic as illustrated in Figure 24. The voltage drop, which occurs in the shunt machine, is compensated for by the voltage rise, which occurs in the series machine. The addition of a sufficient number of series turns offsets the armature IR drop and armature reaction effect, resulting in a flat-compound generator, which has a nearly constant voltage. If more series turns are added, the voltage may rise with load and the machine is known as an over-compound generator.
Percent Voltage Regulation = (ENL - EFL ) / EFL x 100 or for some compound machines, Percent Voltage Regulation = (EFL - ENL ) / EFL x 100
Figure 24 shows that the regulation of a separately excited machine is better than that of a shunt machine. However, the best regulation is obtained with a compound machine. The series machine has practically no regulation at all and, therefore, has little practical application.
When comparing this equation with the voltage equation of a generator, it can be seen that in a generator the generated voltage is higher than the terminal voltage while in a motor the opposite is true. Therefore, as long as the generated voltage is less than the terminal voltage, a machine operates as a motor and takes power from the electrical side, but when the generated voltage becomes greater than the terminal voltage, the machine becomes a generator, supplies electric power, and requires mechanical energy to keep operating.
The back or counter EMF acts as a control for the amount of current needed for each mechanical load. When the mechanical load is increased, the first effect is a reduction in speed. But a reduction in speed also causes a reduction in back EMF, thus making available an increased voltage for current flow in the armature. Therefore, the current increases which in turn increases the torque. Because of this action, a very slight decrease in speed is sufficient to meet the increased torque demand. Also, the input power is regulated to the amount required for supplying the motor losses and output.
Speed Torque Curves
In a series motor the drop in speed with increased torque is much greater. This is due to the fact that the field flux increases with increased current, thus tending to prevent the reduction in back EMF that is being caused by the reduction in speed. The field flux varies in a series motor and the torque varies as the square of the armature current until saturation is reached. Upon reaching saturation, the curve tends to approach the straight line trend of the shunt motor. The no load speed of a series motor is usually too high for safety and, therefore, it should never be operated without sufficient load.
A compound motor has a speed torque characteristic which lies between a shunt and series motor.
Percent Speed Regulation = (SNL - SFL) / SFL x 100 A shunt motor has good speed regulation while a series motor has poor speed regulation. For some applications such as cranes or hoists, the series motor has an advantage since it results in the more deliberate movement of heavier loads. Also, the slowing down of the series motor is better for heavy starting loads. However, for many applications the shunt motor is preferred.
Losses And Efficiency
Friction and Windage
Armature Copper Losses
Field Copper Losses
Section 3: Horsepower Basics
In 18th century England, coal was feeding the industrial revolution and Thomas Newcomen invented a steam driven engine that was used to pump water from coal mines. It was a Scott however, by the name of James Watt, who in 1769 improved the steam engine making it truly workable and practical. In his attempt to sell his new steam engines, the first question coal mine owners asked was "can your engine out work one of my horses?" Watt didn't know since he didn't know how much work a horse could do. To find out, Watt and his partner bought a few average size horses and measured their work. They found that the average horse worked at the rate of 22,000 foot pounds per minute. Watt decided, for some unknown reason, to add 50% to this figure and rate the average horse at 33,000 foot pounds per minute.
What's important is that there is now a system in place for measuring the rate of doing work. And there is a unit of power, horsepower.
If steam engines had been developed some place else in the world, where the horse was not the beast of burden, we might be rating motors in oxen power or camel power. Today, motors are also rated in Watts output.
Horsepower and Electric Motors
D2 L and Torque
With the same frame diameter, the 259AT has 17% more D2 L and thus 17% more and 17% more Torque. Motor torque increases with an increase in iron and copper, combined with current. It can then be said that it takes iron and copper to produce torque and torque makes products. Or to put it another way, what you purchase to make product is TORQUE and that is IRON and COPPER. The rate of doing work is power and HORSEPOWER is a unit of power.
Speed and DC Motors
The sum of the voltage drop in the armature circuit can be represented as IR
Speed example: given motor is design G6219, frame MC3212, 50 hp, 1150 rpm, 500 volt armature, 85 amps full load, 0.432 armature circuit resistance hot, 0.206 armature circuit resistance cold
Last Updated September 1, 1998
|Copyright ©2007, Baldor Electric Company.
All Rights Reserved.